Kanton

China-guangzhou-blue-sky.jpg
Guangzhou (Chinese广州Cantonese pronunciation: [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ̂u] or [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́u] (About this soundlisten)Mandarin pronunciation: [kwàŋ.ʈʂóu] (About this soundlisten)), also known as Canton and formerly romanized as Kwangchow or Kwong Chow,[6] is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China.[7] On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road,[8] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[9]
Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of FoshanDongguanZhongshan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on Earth. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status[10] and is one of China's nine National Central Cities.[11] At the end of 2018, the population of the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year from the previous year.[12] Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city.[13] There is a rapidly increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.[14][15] This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".[16]
The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with ShanghaiBeijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China.[17] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis.[18]
Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.

Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, which was simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province (Guang Zhou), after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, which is how some other Chinese cities, including HangzhouSuzhou, and Fuzhou got their names. The character  or 广—which also appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty.
Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city. The origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered,[20] including that it may have referred to two local mountains.[21][22] The city has also sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh[23] as Khanfu (خانفو).[24] Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang.[25][26]
The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "" (although the abbreviation on car license plates, as with the rest of the province, is ), after its nickname "Rice City". The city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation.[27] The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story. The more recent City of Flowers is usually taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery.
The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão[28] or Cidade de Cantão,[29] a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong"[30][31] (e.g., Hakka Kóng-tûng). Although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was occasionally conflated with Guangdong by some authors.[note 1][note 2] It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the peoplelanguagecuisine and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region. The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo"[33] derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital.

Forrás: wikipédia.hu

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